Psychological Warfare and PSYOP
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Random PSYOP leaflet - Who Pays For Hitler's War?


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PsyWar.Org - The who, what and where...

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PsyWar.Org is an archive of wartime aerial propaganda leaflets and research site for the history and techniques of psychological warfare, PSYOPS and information operations. The website which would become was first launched in mid-1997 by Lee Richards. Since then the site has established a reputation for primary research in this field and has built a large following from professionals working in the information, influence and social science spheres, educators, war studies students and those with a general interest in military history and propaganda.


Lee Richards, (Producer)

Lee Richards

Lee Richards has been researching and writing about the history of propaganda and psychological warfare for over 25 years.

He is an official of the PsyWar Society and Editor of its quarterly journal The Falling Leaf, is a charter member of the US PSYOP Regimental Association and long-standing member of the PSYOP Association.

Richards has written and published several books on the history of subversive propaganda in the Second World War, most notably The Black Art - British Clandestine Psychological Warfare against the Third Reich. His articles have been published in The Falling Leaf, Defence Strategic Communications, the peer-reviewed official journal of the NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence, Perspectives - the journal of the US PSYOP Association, and The Intelligencer - the journal of the Association of Former Intelligence Officers (AFIO).

He has supplied research to and been interviewed by the international media including BBC television in the UK, PBS in America, broadcasters in Malaysia, and newspapers and magazines including the New York Times, America in WWII, WWII magazine, Swindle and others. Television interviews include the BBC's The One Show, Coast, and Heir Hunters programmes and Airfields for the History Channel.

Items from his expansive collection of propaganda literature have appeared on BBC TV's QI  and  The One Show and PBS' History Detectives.

His current research projects include investigating the Morale Operations branch of the Office of Strategic Services in Europe, the role of SOE's D/Q press propaganda section in the Second World War, and the development and employment of post-war British military psychological operations.

He is keen to connect with present and former professional PSYOPers and obtain examples of PSYOP product and supporting media.

Lee Richards worked for the British Broadcasting Corporation for over 13 years, is a joint US and British citizen and now resides in southern England.

Contact Lee Richards


SGM Herbert A. Friedman (Ret.), (Contributor)

SGM Herbert A.  Friedman (Ret.)

Sergeant Major Herbert A. Friedman was discharged in 1995 after 26 years of honourable service. He has held numerous positions in the military, holds three military occupational specialties, several special skills identifiers, and is an honour graduate of the United States Army Sergeants Major Academy at Ft. Bliss, Texas.

He has 22 military awards and decorations and has graduated 26 military courses, including Psychological Operations, the First Sergeant's Course, and the Senior Battle Staff Course.

Since retirement he has been awarded New York State's most prestigious military medal, the Conspicuous Service Cross. He has also been awarded the Town of Hempstead Veterans Medal for his dedication "for the betterment of his brethren" and Nassau County's highest decoration, the Executive's Distinguished Service to Veterans Award.

State Senator Charles J. Fuschillo Jr. appointed him to his Veteran's Advisory Board to study various issues that affect the veteran community, legislation being considered by the New York State Senate, and future programs and community projects.  The Vietnam War Veterans Association presented him with their 2006 Veterans of the Year Award in recognition of his long-standing dedication and commitment to that organization and veteran's issues. In 2007, his town Chamber of Commerce awarded him the title of Community Person of the Year.

He is the mid-Atlantic spokesman to the press for the Psychological Operations Veterans Association (POVA), and the PSYOP history editor of the Psychological Operations Association (POA) journal Perspectives since 1990. He is the American representative of the international Psychological Warfare (Psywar) Society. He has written over 100 print articles on the subject of PSYOP and has been the expert source in close to a dozen published books and numerous magazine and newspaper articles. He has been interviewed on Japanese television, ITN, and on the American news show Extra. He has appeared on both the British and Canadian Broadcasting Corporations (BBC and CBC) and worked with the authors of articles in the New York Times, USA Today, and other American and foreign newspapers. He has been interviewed by the BBC Program Today, their world news program Newsday, and Newshour. His interviews on psychological warfare have appeared in Icon, Print Magazine, the Psychologist, Good Magazine and Défense & Sécurité Internationale. The Ministry of Education of Singapore uses his articles as resources in curriculum packages to support the teaching of history courses in their curriculum.

He was interviewed and acted as a subject expert for the American History Channel Sworn to Secrecy documentary on psychological operations, the British Channel Four documentary on sexual propaganda during World War II embarrassingly entitled Sex Bomb, The German TV documentary Songs of War, the Canadian Chum Limited television documentary Sex and Psyops, and the Tokyo Broadcasting System documentary on American PSYOP during the invasion of Okinawa. He was a special contributor to the Nova documentary Missing in MiG Alley.  His article on the "Wandering Soul" PSYOP campaign in Vietnam was the basis for the radio play "Mimi's Guide" broadcast by Radio L.A. Theatre Works. He was interviewed for the German documentary Songs of War - Music as a Weapon which was nominated for an international Emmy (Best Arts Documentary) in 2012. In 2014, Radio Television Suisse used his data and images for a program about music and its effects on human behavior and Czech TV Barrandov interviewed him about Russian and Ukrainian propaganda in the Crimea.

He has guest-lectured on the history of PSYOP to both the United States Army enlisted and officer's psychological operations training students at Ft. Bragg, NC and was presented with a challenge coin by Colonel Jack N. Summe, Commander, 4th PSYOP Group. PSYOP images from his various articles are on display on the soffit all around the dining facility at United States Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School at Ft. Bragg, North Carolina.

He has guest-lectured at Long Island University.

Since retirement he has been a six-time Commander of his American Legion post, President of the Board of Trustees, a County American Legion Division commander, and the Commis Voyageur (Flag bearer) of the military Forty and Eight honor society. He is a two-time Commander of his Veterans of Foreign War post and an officer of the Vietnam War Veterans Association and member of the 51st Fighter Wing Association and the PSYOP Regimental Association.

He is a volunteer member, ex-captain, and ex-Secretary to the Board of Fire Commissioners of his local fire department and rescue squad. He is the chartered representative of Boy Scout Troop 577 and the chairman of the military committee of his community Town Fair. He volunteers as an adult literacy instructor. In 2006 he was elected to the Board of Trustees of his town Library, and became President of the Board in 2008.

Contact Herb Friedman



PsyWar.Org (tm), (c)1997-2017, Lee Richards

©1997-2017, Unless otherwise acknowledged, all articles, design, graphics, logos and other content, are the copyright of Lee Richards and cannot be reproduced without permission. Crown Copyright material reproduced under terms of the Open Government License.