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Psychological Warfare and Military Propaganda Reference Books

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Adventures in Propaganda
Adventures in Propaganda: Letters from an Intelligence Officer in France; Blankenhorn, Heber; (Houghton, 1919)
The Times History and Encyclopaedia of the War
The Times History and Encyclopaedia of the War: British Propaganda in Enemy Countries; Unsigned; (The Times Publishing Company, 1919)
Secrets of Crewe House
Secrets of Crewe House: The Story of a Famous Campaign; Stuart, Sir Campbell; (Hodder and Stoughton, 1920)
A travers les Lignes ennemies
A travers les Lignes ennemies: Trois anne´es d'offensive contre le moral allemand; Hansi and Tonnelat, Ernest; (Payot et Cie, 1922)
No cover art available
Through Thirty Years 1892-1922: A Personal Narrative - Volume 2; Steed, Henry Wickham; (William Heinemann, Ltd., 1924)
No cover art available
Through Thirty Years 1892-1922: A Personal Narrative - Volume 1; Steed, Henry Wickham; (William Heinemann, Ltd., 1924)
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My Fill of Days; Mitchell, Sir Peter Chalmers; (Faber and Faber Ltd., 1937)
Allied Propaganda and the Collapse of the German Empire in 1918
Allied Propaganda and the Collapse of the German Empire in 1918; Bruntz, George G; (Hoover War Library, 1938)
No cover art available
Propaganda Technique in the World War; Lasswel, Harold D.; (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., 1938)
German Psychological Warfare
German Psychological Warfare; Farago, Ladislas (ed.); (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1942)

The present war is, in large measure, ideological. Ideas are being used for political and military purposes with greater skill and ruthlessness than ever before. Germany has mobilized and employed the resources of scientific and popular psychology with an unprecedented audacity and thoroughness which, in the Germans’ view, mark the latest advance in the art of war. Equipped with vast sums of money and full political power skillfully coordinated with military action, this new type of warfare is a serious menace against which new methods both offensive and defensive must be found. The first line of defense against such a program is knowledge.

This book answers fully, but briefly, ninety-seven trenchant questions on every phase of total war: to begin with, German rationalizations of defeat in the first World War and their psychological rearmament thereafter; the mobilization of German psychology to deal with even the seemingly trivial details of warfare, of leadership, classification, adaptation to military life, and morale in action; and finally, the uses of psychology as an offensive weapon.

Included is a lengthy bibliography of enormous value, since it lists and digests over five hundred sources that are available to students of various phases of the subject. Dr. Kimball Young of Queen’s College has contributed a brilliant Introduction.

R.A.F. Against Goebbels
R.A.F. Against Goebbels: The Story of the Great Truth Offensive Over Europe; PWE; (Air Ministry, 1942)
Sealed and Delivered
Sealed and Delivered: A Book on the Abyssinian Campaign; Steer, George Lowther; (Hodder & Stoughton, 1942)
No cover art available
German Radio Propaganda: Report on Home Broadcasts during the War; Kris, Ernst & Speier, Hans; (Oxford University Press, 1944)
No cover art available
Psychological Warfare PART 1 - December 1944; CINCPAC-CINCPOA; (U.S. Navy, 1944)
No cover art available
Psychological Warfare PART 2 - December 1944; CINCPAC-CINCPOA; (U.S. Navy, 1944)
No cover art available
What Fools We Were; Cockerill, Brig.-Gen. Sir George; (Hutchinson & Co (Publishers) Ltd, 1944)
A Complete Index of Allied Airborne Leaflets and Magazines 1939-1945
A Complete Index of Allied Airborne Leaflets and Magazines 1939-1945; PWE - OWI - PWE/OWI - PWD; (Political Warfare Executive, 1945)

This index contains the title, identification number and date of first and last dissemination of all Allied airborne leaflets and magazines produced since the outbreak of war, and dropped by United Kingdom based aircraft.
A small number of these leaflets were never dropped and in such cases the words “not disseminated” appear gainst the identification number. The publications are divided into countries, sub-divided by the year, and the agency responsible for their initiation appears above the titles.

There are four classifications, viz., P.W.E. Leaflets, (initiated by the Political Intelligence Department of the Foreign Office); O.W.I. leaflets, (initiated by the Office of War Information, United States); Joint P.W.E./O.W.I. leaflets; and P.W.D. leaflets (initiated by the Psychological Warfare Division of S.H.A.E.F.).

The great majority of these leaflets and magazines were dropped during the hours of darkness and in such cases the first and last nights of their dissemination are shown by divided dates viz., 11/12 September equals the night of the 11th or early morning of the 12th.

Allied Information Service on the Western Front
Allied Information Service on the Western Front: Historical Survey of Operations of the 6805th Allied Information Service Group…; McClure, Brigadier General Robert A; (Historical Section, Information Control Division, 1945)
First Daily Airborne Newspaper in the World, The
First Daily Airborne Newspaper in the World, The; Home Counties & Leagrave Press; (Home Counties & Leagrave Press, 1945)

An account of its production by Home Counties Newspapers Ltd, Luton and Gibbs, Bamforth & Co (Luton) Ltd, The Leagrave Press, Luton. Produced for private circulation among the staffs of the two Companies engaged on this work during the second world war, 1939-1945.

The production of the world’s first Airborne Daily Newspaper by our Companies during the war years with a daily circulation rising from 200,000 2pp. issues to over a million 4pp. issues is an achievement of which we are all very proud.

This booklet has been produced to acknowledge the firm’s appreciation of the magnificent spirit of co-operation that existed between Luton, Leagrave and every person individually during those very trying months.

This was truly a job on which the individual work of each person was vital to its success. Without Leagrave the Luton effort was of no avail; without Luton the Leagrave work was inoperable. Each man in the machine room, each cutter at Leagrave, each tier, each bomb packer, each loader, each man in his own sphere, was a vital link in the chain.

The very depleted staffs which produced this newspaper in addition to our own abnormal flow of work makes the story the more remarkable. In the following pages we give a detailed description of the birth of this newspaper, together with press cuttings, letters of appreciation and a complete list of the members of the two staffs who contributed to its success. Specimen copies are also included.

Psychological Warfare Division - SHAEF, The
Psychological Warfare Division - SHAEF, The: An Account of its Operations in the Western European Campaign, 1944-1945; Anon; (U.S. Army, 1945)

The official history of the Psychological Warfare Division of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. The original book was printed in the American zone of Germany at the end of the Second World War with a small restricted circulation. (A reprint is available from the PsyWar.Org book shop)

Psychological Warfare PART 2, Supplement No. 1 - 14 July 1945
Psychological Warfare PART 2, Supplement No. 1 - 14 July 1945; CINCPAC-CINCPOA; (U.S. Navy, 1945)
Psychological Warfare PART 2, Supplement No. 2 - 15 August 1945
Psychological Warfare PART 2, Supplement No. 2 - 15 August 1945; CINCPAC-CINCPOA; (U.S. Navy, 1945)
Psychological Warfare PART 2, Supplement No. 3 - 15 August 1945
Psychological Warfare PART 2, Supplement No. 3 - 15 August 1945; CINCPAC-CINCPOA; (U.S. Navy, 1945)
Publicity and Psychological Warfare, 1943-1945
Publicity and Psychological Warfare, 1943-1945: Twelfth United States Army Group European Theater of Operations; Anon; (War Department, 1945)
Paper Bullets
Paper Bullets: A Brief Story of Psychological Warfare in World War II; Margolin, Leo J.; (Froben Press, 1946)
Bomber Offensive
Bomber Offensive; Harris, Sir Arthur; (Collins, 1947)

Bomber Offensive is the first important book about the war to be written by any of our Service chiefs. It is of historical value as a war document and of personal interest as the memoirs of an outstanding man. As Commander-in-Chief Bomber Command, Sir Arthur Harris was responsible for directing the policy of a bomber offensive, and his views on the controversial questions— whether the results of this were worth the expenditure of lives and materials or whether area bombing was morally justifiable—will be read with universal interest. A feature of the book is the author’s numerous reports of conversations with Mr. Churchill, Field-Marshal Smuts and other leading men, which took place at critical moments during the war.

From 1939 Sir Arthur Harris was confident in Bomber Command as a potentially decisive weapon, and he now recounts the very complete story of how, from a nucleus of untrained men and obsolete machines, was built up the aweinspiring force which could carry out the 1000-bomber raids. He tells of the lessons learned from German bombing; of what was achieved during the year of preparation and experiment before the main attack began in March 1943; of the success of particular operations such as the destruction of the Mohne and Eder dams, and of the bombing of Berlin. Finally, he is able to tell of the actual ‘results’ discovered since the end of the war, and how far we were right in our estimates of the effect of air attack.

In a last chapter ‘Bomber’ Harris looks to the future, discussing the atomic bomb and the scope of Service responsibility in a scientific war.

Comes the Reckoning
Comes the Reckoning; Bruce Lockhart, R.H.; (Putnam, 1947)
No cover art available
Special Operations: AAF aid European Resistance Movements 1943-1945; Warren, Harris G; (Air Historical Office HQ, Army Air Force, 1947)
No cover art available
Undercover Girl: An Account of the Author's Experiences as a Member of the Office of Strategic Services; McIntosh, Elizabeth P.; (Macmillan Co., 1947)
No cover art available
Goebbels Diaries, 1942 - 1943, The; Lochner, Louis P; (Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1948)
FM 33-5 [1949] Psychological Warfare in Combat Operations - August 1949
FM 33-5 [1949] Psychological Warfare in Combat Operations - August 1949: Department of the Army Field Manual; Department of the Army; (US Government, 1949)

As a military weapon, psychological warfare is no newer than the rumors whispered about Hannibal, the wave of terror spread in advance of the armies of Genghis Khan, Philip of Macedonia, and Attila the Hun, and the methods used by George Washington to increase desertion among the Hessians. What is new about psychological warfare is the manner in which it recently has been systematically organized and used as an integral part of military operations.
Experience has demonstrated conclusively that psychological warfare is a highly effective weapon which can be used to minimize expenditure of human life and destruction of property. It is not a substitute for battle, but a supplementary means of combat which can facilitate and exploit success on the battlefield.
Psychological warfare has limitations and disadvantages. One American army commander who achieved outstanding success in World War II expressed this idea when he said, “Psychological warfare had an important place in the European Campaign. It can accomplish much good. It can also be extremely harmful.” It is the duty of commanders to understand how to secure the beneficial effects and to avoid those which are harmful.

No cover art available
Sykewar: Psychological Warfare Against Germany, D-Day to VE-Day; Lerner, Daniel; (George W. Stewart, 1949)
No cover art available
Combat propaganda against the Japanese in the Central Pacific; Vatcher, William Henry; (Thesis (Ph. D.) Stanford University, 1950)
Opportunity Knocks Once
Opportunity Knocks Once; Stuart, Sir Campbell; (Collins, 1952)
Psychological Warfare
Psychological Warfare: ROTC ST 5-1 Engineer School ROTC Special Text; The Engineer School, U.S. Army; (U.S. Army, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, 1952)
Aerial Propaganda Leaflets
Aerial Propaganda Leaflets: A Collector's Handbook; Field, John C.W.; (Francis J. Field Ltd., 1954)
Psychological Warfare
Psychological Warfare: 2nd Edition; Linebarger, Paul M A; (Combat Forces Press, 1954)

The first edition of this work has been out of print since before the start of the Korean war. Publication of this second edition was delayed until the lessons of this “little war” could be digested and incorporated into Dr. Linebarger’s work, now a standard book in its field.

The author went to Korea several times as a consultant; his “consultations” occasionally found him in propaganda planes flying over enemy territory, or on the ground within sound of the loudspeakers. His mastery of the Chinese language and his knowledge of the Chinese character was most helpful.

This present edition is not only up to date, not only expanded, but it contains also the product of the author's later and more deliberate thinking on earlier materials. The thousands who found the earlier edition indispensable to an understanding of this important facet of modern war will appreciate the later material and the reworking of earlier material.

Here is a logical and readable book, useful as a text for the serious student, and still understandable to the layman, the soldier, or the casual student.

You are a target for psychological warfare every time you read a newspaper, watch television, listen to a radio, or attend a lecture. Are you prepared?

This book will prepare you.

Big Lie, The
Big Lie, The; White, John Baker; (Evans Brosthers Ltd., 1955)

During the last war, as at any time of international crisis, rumour ran wild. The scaremonger and the armchair strategist came into their own and stories ranged from the fantastic to the probable.

In enemy countries many of the rumours which gained the most credence were not the result of idle speculation. They were ideas, deliberately thought out and planned in London, disseminated among the enemy population by British agents. Their objects were: to undermine morale, to stiffen Resistance Movements in Occupied Territory and to win over wavering neutrals.

There were other deceptions, physical “feints” involving men and machines; faked papers, maps and photographs; even a corpse was pressed into service in this war of the mind—The Big Lie— used to harass, puzzle and trick the enemy into making a false move, or no move at all!

This book gives a brilliant picture of this neglected part of the vast canvas of war. The author writes from personal experience and knowledge, since he was responsible for inventing “rumours”, preparing leaflets and broadcasts intended for enemy forces. Among the many deceptions he describes are: Operation Torch, the Overlord deception, Major Martin—the Man who Never Was, the Burning Sea, etc. He also provides a most revealing study of the German method of psychological warfare actually in force in the years prior to 1939, to further the “Peaceful Intentions” deception of Adolf Hitler.

FM 33-5 [1955] Psychological Warfare Operations - March 1955
FM 33-5 [1955] Psychological Warfare Operations - March 1955; Department of the Army; (US Government, 1955)
The Man Who Came Back
The Man Who Came Back: The Story of Otto John; Frischauer, Willi; (Frederick Muller Ltd, 1958)

The Man Who Came Back reads like a modern political thriller; and this astonishing—but true—story reflects a vital problem of our times. It not only relates the dramatic details of John’s youthful opposition against the Nazis, but also gives a full account of his part in the great German wartime conspiracy and bomb plot against Hitler in July, 1944. The descriptions of John’s hair’s-breadth escape to Britain, and his work for the British Black Propaganda organisation, throw light on many well-kept war secrets.

Returning to his defeated and divided Fatherland as Chief of West German Intelligence, John was soon involved in the frantic underground warfare of rival espionage organisations; he was also caught up in the East-West conflict of conscience which harassed many of his compatriots—and still does. His mysterious “disappearance” from West Germany and emergence in Communist East Germany, his equally baffling return to the West, and his controversial trial, coincide with important stages in Germany’s post-war development.

Was Otto John a criminal and a traitor, or a hero and martyr? That is the question which this exciting book probes. The answer has profound implications which have a bearing not only on the fate of one man but on the future of Germany, Europe, and, perhaps, the peace of the world.

An Introduction to Wartime Leaflets
An Introduction to Wartime Leaflets; Berger, Carl; (Special Operations Research Office, 1959)

Leaflets, together with radio broadcasts and loudspeaker operations, have formed the core of Army psychological operations. There have been relatively few studies, however, devoted exclusively to the military aspects of psychological operations and even fewer to the individual media. This study on leaflets undertakes to fill, at least partially, this gap.

This brief work on military leaflets brings together a mass of information on their wartime uses and should be of value by virtue of its concise statement of some of the more important problems confronting the military users of leaflets. For those students or operators who are interested in probing more intensively into various aspects of the subject, the study includes a guide to further information in the form of notes to the separate sections and an annotated bibliography at the end of the text.

No cover art available
Inner Circle, The: Memoirs of Ivone Kirkpatrick; Kirkpatrick, Ivone; (MacMillan & Co. Ltd, 1959)
Trail Sinister
Trail Sinister: An Autobiography Volume One; Delmer, Denis Sefton; (Secker & Warburg, 1961)

Sefton Delmer, whose dispatches were probably read by more people than any other British foreign correspondent's in the years before and after World War II, was born and brought up in Berlin, where his father was Professor of English at the University. He speaks and thinks as fluently in German as he does in his native tongue. This gave him, when he came in the 'twenties and 'thirties to live again and work as foreign correspondent of the Daily Express in Germany, a unique insight into, and to a large extent sympathy with, the German character. He himself regards this attribute both as a gift and a curse. Whichever it was, it has enabled him in this book to give the most intimate, revealing and enthralling picture of life in Germany between the two wars ever to have been written, and particularly of the Nazi leaders, all of whom he knew personally.

Black Boomerang
Black Boomerang: An Autobiography Volume Two; Delmer, Denis Sefton; (Secker & Warburg, 1962)

In this second installment of his autobiography, Sefton Delmer tells of the use to which his unique knowledge of the German people was put during World War II. Early in 1941, Mr. Delmer was made head of a newly created special section of the Political Warfare Executive, charged with the task of spreading what became known as "black" propaganda amongst the enemy. He started with a secretary and one assistant, but from these small beginnings developed one of the most curious and fascinating by-products of the whole war. The task of Mr. Delmer's team, which grew to include such disparate personalities as a history don, an inspector of schools, a banker, a newspaper editor and an assortment of German and other refugees, was to launch broadcast propaganda which purported to come from a German station. Much of what was broadcast was the truth - gleaned often from the tapped conversations of German prisoners - much of it had a ring of truth, sometimes it even deceived our American allies, always it purported to come from patriotic Germans eager to expose the weaknesses and corruption which were impeding the noble Führer's efforts. Mr. Delmer gives fascinating examples of actual broadcasts, of deceptions practiced, of lies disseminated, of new techniques whereby he and the merry men of his ghost station "Soldatensender Calais" were able to take over the wavelength of German radio stations driven off the air by radio.

Die Deutschen und ich
Die Deutschen und ich; Delmer, Denis Sefton; (Nannen, 1962)
FM 33-5 [1962] Psychological Operations - January 1962
FM 33-5 [1962] Psychological Operations - January 1962: Department of the Army Field Manual; Department of the Army; (US Government, 1962)
Quiet Canadian, The
Quiet Canadian, The: The Secret Service Story of Sir William Stephenson; Montgomery Hyde, H; (Hamish Hamilton, 1962)
Staff Officers Guide to Psychological Operations
Staff Officers Guide to Psychological Operations; Chief of the Imperial General Staff; (The War Office, 1962)
Amateur Agent
Amateur Agent: A story of 'Black' Propaganda during World War II; Butler, Ewan; (George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd., 1963)

A good deal has been written about the activities of Special Operations Executive during the last war. Charged by Mr Churchill with the task of “setting Europe ablaze”, SOE supported Resistance movements not only in Europe but in the Far East and in Middle Eastern countries which, at one stage or another, seemed likely to be overrun by the enemy. An essential part of this support, and one which has never received any publicity, was subversive propaganda directed against the enemy. This aspect of SOE is dealt with in this book.

The author joined SOE at the end of 1940 and specialized in “Black” propaganda for the rest of the war. His duties took him to the Middle East and to Sweden, where he spent the last two years of the war as a military attaché with somewhat unorthodox terms of reference not confined to propaganda. Between 1943 and 1945, SOE infiltrated eight agents from Sweden into Germany itself—without losing one man to the Gestapo. Amateur Agent is not a record of heroism, and in parts it is a light-hearted book. Nevertheless, in 1962, the Government seriously considered forbidding its publication on security grounds.

Ewan Butler has held a number of important appointments in journalism. Before the last war he represented The Times in New York and Berlin. From 1945/49 he was Foreign Editor of the Daily Mail, and from 1951/53 he was Deputy Editor of Time and Tide. His book lifts a corner of what has hitherto been a very thick curtain.

FM 33-5 [1966] Psychological Operations Techniques and Procedures - 20 October 1966
FM 33-5 [1966] Psychological Operations Techniques and Procedures - 20 October 1966; Headquarters, Department of the Army; (Department of the Army, 1966)

This manual provides detailed psychological operations techniques for psychological operations commanders and staff officers. It discusses relationships, capabilities, tactics, and techniques of psychological operations during general, limited, and cold war operations... The techniques and procedures discussed in this manual augment doctrine published in FM 33-1. By integrating the tactics and techniques described in this manual with those concerned with general and limited war, counterinsurgent operations, and guerrilla warfare, the commander and the staff officer will gain maximum benefit from psychological operations as a weapons system.

Un-American Weapon, The
Un-American Weapon, The: Psychological Warfare; Harris, Elliot; (N.W. Lads Publishing Company, 1967)
Urania's Children
Urania's Children: The Strange World of the Astrologers; Howe, Ellic; (William Kimber, 1967) ISBN 7183-0010-6

Urania’s Children provides the first authoritative analysis of the historical pattern of the survival of astrological beliefs in Western Europe since 1700. The author shows that for close on two centuries up to c.1890 astrology survived almost exclusively in Great Britain and was not rediscovered on the Continent until the end of the nineteenth century. He pinpoints the influences which led to its revival in Europe, and has paid particular attention to the extraordinary German astrological movement of the period 1919-39 and its anomalous status in Hitler’s Third Reich after 1933.

Ellic Howe’s interest in the German astrologers began with a fortuitous and unexpected reminder of the wartime faking (by the British) of a letter alleged to have been written by Karl Ernst Krafft (1900-45), the Swiss astrologer who was said to have been Hitler’s indispensable adviser. This led to the discovery that Krafft died in a German concentration camp, and to an intensive search for accurate information about his career and fate. Part II of the book provides a study of this career, and the strange sequence of events leading to his supposed association with Hitler is examined in great detail. The author also gives the first factual account of how astrology and the prophecies of Nostradamus were used for psychological warfare purposes by both the British and the Germans. The part in this played by Louis de Wohl, the British ‘secret service’ astrologer, who was supposed to ‘predict the predictions’ that Krafft was thought to be making for Hitler, is discussed on the basis of completely new evidence.

FM 33-1 [1968] Psychological Operations U.S. Army Doctrine - June 1968
FM 33-1 [1968] Psychological Operations U.S. Army Doctrine - June 1968: Department of the Army Field Manual; Headquarters, Department of the Army; (US Government, 1968)
Psychological Warfare Casebook, A
Psychological Warfare Casebook, A; Daugherty, William E. & Janowitz, Morris; (The John Hopkins Press, 1968)
Seventh Psychological Operations Group
Seventh Psychological Operations Group: Organizational Mission and Function Manual; Department of the Army; (Department of the Army, 1968)
Leaflet Operations in the Second World War
Leaflet Operations in the Second World War: The Story of the How and Why of the 6,500,000,000 Propaganda Leaflets Dropped on Axis Forces…; Erdmann, James, M.; (Denver Instant Printing, 1969)
Truth-benders, The
Truth-benders, The: Psychological Warfare in the Second World War; Seth, Ronald; (Leslie Frewin, 1969)
Twice Through the Lines
Twice Through the Lines: An Autobiography of Otto John; John, Otto; Barry, Richard; (Harper & Row, 1969)

These are the memoirs of the former head of West Germany’s internal secret service who made world headlines in 1954 when he disappeared in Berlin. Had he defected to the Soviets, as claimed by the Russians and by Dr. John’s German bitter rival in the deadly game of espionage, General Gehlen? Or had he been abducted by the Russians, seeking a “cover” for their own mass arrest of Gehlen’s agents in East Germany—as claimed by Dr. John?

“This is the record of a life of conspiracy, danger, frustration and failure,” in the words of Hugh Trevor-Roper, author of THE LAST DAYS OF ADOLF HITLER.

In postwar Germany, Dr. John, the last survivor of the conspiracy to assassinate Hitler, found himself the target of many men of power, including Chancellor Adenauer. For allegedly “defecting” to the East, he was sentenced to four years of hard labor when he returned to West Germany. He served his full legal term in solitary confinement—time spent in preparing this searing book.

No cover art available
Trumpet in the Hall, The, 1930-1958; Fergusson, Bernard; (Collins, 1970) ISBN 0-0021-1825-4
FM 33-1 [1971] Psychological Operations - 4 February 1971
FM 33-1 [1971] Psychological Operations - 4 February 1971; Headquarters, Department of the Army; (Department of the Army, 1971)
No cover art available
Psychological Warfare against Nazi Germany: The Sykewar Campaign, D-Day to VE-Day; Lerner, Daniel; (The M.I.T. Press, 1971) ISBN 0-262-12045-3
Deception Game, The
Deception Game, The: Czechoslovak Intelligence in Soviet Political Warfare; Bittman, Ladislav; (Syracuse University Research Corporation, 1972) ISBN 0-8156-8078-3

They call it the “Department of Dirty Tricks.” What does it do? And how?

A U.S. questionnaire is sent to important people in Latin America; the questions arouse furious anger at the United States. A letter from an American embassy reveals U.S. participation in a conspiracy against Tanzania’s government. An Indonesian ambassador receives documentary evidence that a trusted American import executive is actually the CIA’s chief agent in Indonesia. A letter from J. Edgar Hoover cites the FBI’s role in Operation “Overhaul,” a plan to overthrow Goulart’s Brazilian government.

What do these documents have in common? Every one is a forgery conceived and executed by the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service’s Department D. Their purpose? To foment fear and suspicion of the United States in countries around the world. Their method of operation? That is the story revealed here for the first time — the inside story of Department D and its deception games, told by the man who was its deputy chief from 1964 through 1966 when these tricks were played.

Ladislav Bittman’s fascinating and candid account is rich in lively word pictures of intelligence personnel — agents, officers, government ministers — and the Soviet supervisors whom they deeply resented. It describes the day-by-day development of deception operations, always with the U.S. as prime target. Bittman tells the full story of major deception triumphs such as Operation Neptune, Operation Palmer, Operation Thomas Mann, and the frustration when an elaborate propaganda operation falls flat, when a clever project must be abandoned because the appropriate U.S. letterhead is not available for the forgery or documents are immediately suspected because a typist was ignorant of correct English word division.

Bittman traces his own growing disenchantment with Soviet-controlled intelligence work. In 1968 he hailed Dubcek’s liberal democratic socialism with enthusiasm; two weeks after the Soviet army moved into Czechoslovakia, Bittman chose exile in the West.

Now in the United States, he continues to watch the world press. His final chapter is a shrewd analysis of recent “news” in which he detects the tell-tale signs of Department D’s continuing operation. Throughout the Soviet bloc, the “Department of Dirty Tricks” is as busy as ever.

Big Lie, The
Big Lie, The: The Inside Story of Psychological Warfare; White, John Baker; (George Mann, 1973) ISBN 0-7041-0026-6

Eight little words may have saved Britain from invasion — and certain defeat — in September 1940. 'The British can set the sea on fire'.

There is no doubt that, both at home and abroad, the story was widely believed, and American correspondent William Shirer in his book Berlin Diary even tells of rumoured ambulance trains arriving by dead of night in the German capital packed with the survivors of a foiled invasion attempt, all hideously burned victims of a blazing sea.
Yet these eight little words added up to a lie: a Big Lie deliberately manufactured by Britain's wartime psychological warfare department to confuse and harass the enemy.

How are these Big Lies dreamed up? Equally important, how are they implanted? Tearing away the veil of secrecy, John Baker White who plotted many of the successful deceptions of the last war, tells the exciting story of the weapons employed in this warfare of the mind: the faked papers, maps and photographs, all the tricks used to force the enemy to make a false move — or no move at all.

Here are Operation V, Operation Torch, the Overlord deception, 'The Man Who Never Was', and other important Big Lies covered in detail in a book so rich in plots it could inspire a score of novels.

Counterfeit Spy, The
Counterfeit Spy, The; Delmer, Denis Sefton; (Hutchinson, 1973) ISBN 0 09 109700 2
De Wervelwind, De Vliegende Hollander
De Wervelwind, De Vliegende Hollander: en andere uit de lucht verspreide vlugschriften; de Vries, Leonard/de Groot, Jan; (Skarabee Facsimile, 1974) ISBN 90 6071 133 5
Flugblätter: Psychologische Kriegsführung im Zweiten Weltkrieg in Europa; Kirchner, Klaus; (Carl Hanser Verlag, 1974) ISBN 3446119302
FM 33-5 [1974] Psychological Operations Techniques and Procedures - January 1974
FM 33-5 [1974] Psychological Operations Techniques and Procedures - January 1974; Headquarters, Department of the Army; (US Government, 1974)
Heil Beil!
Heil Beil!: – Flugblattpropaganda im II. Weltkrieg; Ortwin BUCHBENDER & Horst SCHUH; (Seewald Verlag Suttgart, 1974) ISBN 3 512 00358 3
Psychological Warfare
Psychological Warfare; Roetter, Charles; (Purnell Book Services, 1974)
A Printer Goes To War
A Printer Goes To War; Budd, Edward; (Howard Baker, 1975) ISBN 0 7030 0067 5

This is the story of one man's war.

Major Edward Budd was in charge of printing operations for the B.E.F., the Eighth Army and the 21st Army Group. He met their insatiable and often "impossible" demands — newspapers, army forms, propaganda leaflets and much more — and always on time.

Many V.I.P.s, including Royalty, appear in these pages. For a time the stage is held by Lord Montgomery of Alamein, for whom Major Budd did personal work. In fact the presence of Montgomery is felt throughout.

But undoubtedly the leading character is Major Budd himself: dogged, determined, going to extraordinary lengths to get the job done; fighting pressures on one hand and indifference on the other. And while mindful of King's Regulations and "proper channels", doing it all HIS WAY.
On leaving the Army, he became personal assistant to the eccentric millionaire publisher Walter Hutchinson. And that was the beginning of a small war of its own.
Major Budd tells his story with verve and humour, without striving for effect, and the result is highly entertaining.

Art and Science of Psychological Operations, The
Art and Science of Psychological Operations, The: Case Studies of Military Application, Volume Two; Department of the Army; (Department of the Army, 1976)
Art and Science of Psychological Operations, The
Art and Science of Psychological Operations, The: Case Studies of Military Application, Volume One; Department of the Army; (Department of the Army, 1976)
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band  6
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 6: Flugblätter aus den USA 1943/44; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1977) ISBN 3-921295-04-1
Fourth Arm, The
Fourth Arm, The: Psychological Warfare 1938-1945; Cruickshank, Charles; (Davis-Poynter, 1977) ISBN 0 7067 0212 3

Psychological warfare - the use of the spoken and written word to undermine the enemy’s resistance and to stiffen morale in occupied countries - developed in Britain from a small organisation founded in the 1914-18 war to become, during the Second World War, a highly sophisticated machine linked closely to the American Offices of War Information and Strategic Services, under the direction of former secret agent, Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart.
The Political Warfare Executive, as it became known, devised propaganda campaigns which were broadcast in many languages by the BBC and by fake wireless stations purporting to operate from Germany or occupied countries. Countless leaflets were dropped by the RAF and by special balloons or were smuggled in by agents. Carefully evolved rumours were spread. No holds were barred in disseminating ‘black’ propaganda to the enemy, be it by radio, in fake newspapers or pamphlets - principally masterminded by Sefton Delmer.

Never completely told before, this is a fully documented, yet highly readable, account of some of the most fascinating clandestine operations in the Second World War.

The author pays special attention to three of these twilit campaigns: the ‘peasant war’, designed to encourage Europe’s farmers to deny the Germans their produce; ‘V for Victory’, which became a victim of its own totally unexpected success; and ‘Operation Husky’ (the invasion of Sicily) in which the Allied Command relied heavily upon propaganda. Among other little known subjects, the author describes the use of ‘Aspidistra’, a high-powered transmitter used to send out misleading messages to the Germans after D-Day.

Having outlined the various campaigns, both ‘black’ and ‘white’, the author goes on to describe the effect of the propaganda in both Germany and the occupied countries and he assesses the value of this curious contribution to the defeat of Hitler.

Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band  1
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 1: Flugblätter aus England 1939/40/41; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1978)
No cover art available
Politics of Propaganda, The: The Office of War information, 1942-1945; Winkler, Allan M; (Yale University Press, 1978) ISBN 0300021488
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band  5
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 5: Flugblätter aus England G-1943. G-1944; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1979) ISBN 3-921295-11-4
FM 33-1 [1979] Psychological Operations - 31 August 1979
FM 33-1 [1979] Psychological Operations - 31 August 1979; HQ Department of the Army; (Department of the Army, 1979)
Propaganda in War 1939-1945
Propaganda in War 1939-1945: Organisations, Policies and Publics in Britain and Germany; Balfour, Michael; (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979) ISBN 0-7100-0193-2

This is the first book to deal with both British and German propaganda during the Second World War, both as regards what was said at home and what was said to the enemy. The author is uniquely qualified for the task. Professor Balfour first worked in that part of the Ministry of Information which handled publicity on the home front. In 1942 he moved to the Political Warfare Executive which directed propaganda to the enemy and enemy-occupied countries. He has recently gone through their archives in the Public Record Office, sometimes encountering as historical documents papers which he himself helped to produce thirty years earlier. Moreover his job in the Intelligence Directorate of PWE involved him in following German propaganda from day to day, while four books written since the war testify to his familiarity with German history. He has reinforced this by a special study of the German archives.

Many colourful characters figure in these pages, such as Brendan Bracken, Dick Crossman, Lord Haw-Haw and Hans Fritzsche. Of Goebbels in particular he paints a fascinating picture, more interesting and plausible than the usual stereotype. The second part of the book is a detailed analysis, operation by operation, of the way the war news was handled on both sides: a curious set of distorted mirror-images of the main events emerges from the narrative. The book also presents a new view of the nature and effects of propaganda and of how publicity should be fitted into the machinery of government.

Did propaganda live up to the expectations which were sometimes placed on it? Professor Balfour answers the question by explaining the many reasons why it could not.

Diaries of Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, 1939-1965, The
Diaries of Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, 1939-1965, The; Young, Kenneth (Ed); (Macmillan, 1980) ISBN 0-333-18480-7

Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart’s first volume of diaries, which covered the years from 1915 to 1938, revealed him as a keen and well-informed observer of the social and political scene. With the outbreak of war in 1939 he moved to the centre of action, becoming in due course Director-General of the Political Warfare Executive. In this capacity he was responsible for the whole of the British secret propaganda, and his diaries have much to say about its problems, its organisation, its organisation, its personalities (which included such men as R.H.S. Crossman, John Wheeler-Bennett, Sefton Delmer, Ritchie Calder and Walter Adams), and its occasional triumphs. He also had occasion to become a far closer friend of the politicians with whom he worked. His friendship with Eden lasted into peacetime, and there is a moving and detailed portrait of the future prime minister at one of the most difficult periods of his life. There are unforgettable glimpses of Brendan Bracken, Lord Beaverbrook, Hugh Dalton, Harold Macmillan, A. V. Alexander and many others, and a wealth of fresh anecdotes about all the major figures in public life, particularly Churchill. For instance, with¬in one week in 1942 Beaverbrook, Stafford Cripps and Eden each told Lockhart that he had been the decisive influence upon Churchill’s speech welcoming Russia’s entry into the war.

Lockhart was also British representative to the Czechoslovak Provisional Govern¬ment, which cemented his friendship with Benes and particularly with Jan Masaryk, their Foreign Minister. Perhaps the most moving episode on the book is his account of a visit to Czechoslovakia in 1947 during its brief spell of freedom before it fell to the Communists, with its tragic aftermath of Masaryk’s death - whether by murder or suicide may never be finally settled. It goes without saying that this intimate account of British political life over nearly three decades will be of great interest to the historian, but it will also entertain and inform the general reader. Kenneth Young has made a deft and coherent selection from Lockhart’s extremely voluminous diaries and identified almost all the vast cast of characters

Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band  7
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 7: Flugblätter aus England aus den USA 1944/45; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1980) ISBN 3-921295-13-0
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band  3
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 3: Flugblätter aus Frankreich 1939/1940; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1981) ISBN 3-921295-14-9
Fourth Arm, The
Fourth Arm, The: Psychological Warfare 1938-1945; Cruickshank, Charles; (Oxford University Press, 1981)
Psykologisk krigforing i Norge DURHAM -  hemmelige operasjoner
Psykologisk krigforing i Norge DURHAM - hemmelige operasjoner: I Trondelag mot tysk okkupasjonsmakt 1943-45; Gjems-Onstad, Erik; (Sollia forlag, 1981) ISBN 82-90346-01-8
No cover art available
War of Ideas: The US Propaganda Campaign in Vietnam; Chandler, Robert W; (Westview Press, 1981)
Black Game, The
Black Game, The: British Subversive Operations Against the Germans during the Second World War; Howe, Ellic; (Michael Joseph, 1982) ISBN 0-7181-1718-2

During the Second World War certain British propaganda activities were classified as 'black'. While the BBC’s broadcasts to Germany and enemy-occupied Europe were all ‘white’, and also leaflets bearing the imprint of HM Government and dropped by the RAF, ‘black’ operations never indicated their British origin. There were various shades ranging from dense black to grey according to the target and objectives, but subversion - the disruption of the enemy’s will and power to fight on - was the objective common to all the output intended for German ears and eyes.

From August 1941 onwards propaganda work in both the black and white areas was controlled by a secret department designated as the Political Warfare Executive which achieved its greatest black successes under the leadership of Sefton Delmer. At the height of his wartime maturity black propaganda was not merely distortion or disregard of the truth, nor just sensational rumour-mongering; its power depended upon his ability to identify himself completely with his German target - an immensely subtle operation, relying significantly upon the use of psychology. One of his greatest achievements was to establish the Atlantiksender (short-wave) coupled with the immensely powerful Soldatensender Calais (medium-wave), both stations offering its listeners stories which were brilliant combinations of truth and falsehood. It was the cumulative effect of these misleading broadcasts which was significant.

Ellic Howe’s contribution to the work of the PWE was the production of subversive literature - authentic-looking posters and leaflets in German conveying false information designed to confuse and disturb, such as the poster depicting an SS officer declaring that he was ‘wanted’ by the authorities. It is impossible to gauge the extent of damage caused by either the broadcasts or the literature, but Richard Crossman wrote in 1973: ‘Subversive operations and black propaganda were the only aspects of war at which we achieved real pre-eminence.' Ellic Howe’s account of these ‘black’ activities makes fascinating reading and is superbly illustrated by ‘black’ material from the Imperial War Museum.

No cover art available
British Propaganda during the First World War, 1914-18; Sanders, M L & Taylor, Philip M; (The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1982) ISBN 0-333-29275-8
Emergency in Malaya
Emergency in Malaya: The Psychological Dimension; Derry, Archie F; (National Defence College, 1982)
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band  2
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 2: Flugblätter aus Deutschland 1939/40; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1982) ISBN 3-921295-05-x
Sort Propaganda
Sort Propaganda; Schmidt, Palle; (Årsskrift for Frihedsmuseets Venner, 1982) ISBN 87-88214-00-1
No cover art available
US Army Special Warfare: Its Origins; Paddock, Jr, Alfred H.; (National Defense University Press, 1982)
SOE in the Far East
SOE in the Far East; Cruickshank, Charles; (Oxford University Press, 1983) ISBN 0192158732

The whole course of World War II in the Far East might have been changed if the activities of Special Operations Executive (SOE) had been given a freer rein by the military and politicians. This is the startling conclusion of Dr Cruickshank’s acclaimed official history, based on secret files and the accounts of surviving agents.

The special agents infiltrated by air and sea into Siam, French Indo-China, Sumatra, Burma, and Malaya played a crucial part in the Allied liberation of South East Asia from Japanese control. As well as training and equipping guerrillas, they engaged in many daring acts of sabotage and further undermined enemy morale with an ingenious and highly successful campaign of psychological warfare.

No cover art available
Dezinformatsia: Active Measures in Soviet Strategy; Shultz, Richard H; Godson, Roy; (Brassey's Inc, 1984) ISBN 978-0080315737

Two leading political scientists analyze the Soviet policy of disseminating misinformation about it's government, assessing Soviet strategies of propaganda and political manipulation in terms of political-military tactics.

Flugblatt - Propaganda im 1. Weltkrieg, Band  1
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 1. Weltkrieg, Band 1: Flugblätter aus England 1914 - 1918; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1985) ISBN 3-921295-22-x
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band  8
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 8: Fugblätter aus der UdSSR Juni - August 1941; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1986) ISBN 3-921295-10-6
SOE in Scandinavia
SOE in Scandinavia; Cruickshank, Charles; (Oxford University Press, 1986) ISBN 019215883X

The support of Special Operations Executive (SOE) for the resistance movements in Denmark and Norway in World War II, and Britain’s anti-Nazi activities in Sweden even before the war began, made a crucial contribution to the Allied victory in Europe.

In order to write this official history of SOE in Scandinavia, Charles Cruickshank was given access to secret government files which reveal for the first time the full extent of the heroism of British- trained Norwegians and Danes, the treachery of collaborators, and the Gestapo’s inhuman treatment of hostages and captured agents.

With the help of contemporary agents’ reports Dr Cruickshank describes outstanding feats of sabotage carried out by patriot forces in enemy- occupied Norway and Denmark: the vital destruction of the Norwegian heavy-water plant on which Hitler depended for his atomic-bomb programme, attacks on shipping under the noses of the German troops, the insolent activities of the ‘Oslo gang’ which took on the Nazis single-handed. The part played by the RAF and the famous Shetland Bus Service in equipping and transporting patriots was also of crucial importance, and a special tribute is paid to the women of the resistance in Denmark and Norway.

Clandestine Radio Broadcasting
Clandestine Radio Broadcasting: A Study of Revolutionary and Counterrevolutionary Electronic Communication; Soley, Lawrence C & Nichols, John S; (Praeger, 1987) ISBN 0-275-92259-6

Foreword: "Clandestine radio broadcasting, by its very nature, is extremely difficult to study. Clandestine stations generally emerge from the darkest shadows of political conflict. They frequently are operated by revolutionary groups or intelligence agencies that are unable or unwilling to leave a documentary record of their activities. And, unlike printed propaganda, no artifact remains. Consequently, a good deal of what has been published about clandestine radio broadcasting is nothing more than educated guesswork. In many cases, the guesswork is not even particularly educated. Because it is usually difficult to pinpoint a station’s sponsorship, location, motives, and so on, very few scholars or journalists have taken the risk of writing in depth about clandestine radio broadcasting. Indeed, this is the first book-length interpretative history of the subject. We have attempted to report as accurately as possible the past and present of clandestine radio broadcasting and, in interpreting the subject matter, to make our guesswork as educated as possible. Nonetheless, we readily admit that despite our best efforts, we undoubtedly have fallen victim to at least some attempts by clandestine broadcasters, their sponsors, or opponents to deceive outsiders about their true nature. In this respect, our goal of accurately describing the major clandestine stations within their political context is probably unreachable. We nevertheless hope our work builds a documentary foundation for future research and will pique the interest of others to study in more detail these stations. In short, this book should be considered only the first step in understanding the role of clandestine radio broadcasting in revolution and counterrevolution."

Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 10
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 10: Flugblätter aus Deutschland 1941; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1987) ISBN 3-921295-17-3
FM 33-1 [1987] Psychological Operations - July 1987
FM 33-1 [1987] Psychological Operations - July 1987; HQ Department of the Army; (US Government, 1987)
Propaganda: The Art of Persuasion: World War II; Rhodes, Anthony; (Wellfleet Press, 1987) ISBN 1-55521-171-2
Black Game, The
Black Game, The: British Subversive Operations against the Germans during the Second World War; Howe, Ellic; (Queen Anne Press, 1988) ISBN 07088-4041-8

During the Second World War certain British propaganda activities were classified as 'black'. While the BBC’s broadcasts to Germany and enemy-occupied Europe were all ‘white’, and also leaflets bearing the imprint of HM Government and dropped by the RAF, ‘black’ operations never indicated their British origin. There were various shades ranging from dense black to grey according to the target and objectives, but subversion - the disruption of the enemy’s will and power to fight on - was the objective common to all the output intended for German ears and eyes.

From August 1941 onwards propaganda work in both the black and white areas was controlled by a secret department designated as the Political Warfare Executive which achieved its greatest black successes under the leadership of Sefton Delmer. At the height of his wartime maturity black propaganda was not merely distortion or disregard of the truth, nor just sensational rumour-mongering; its power depended upon his ability to identify himself completely with his German target - an immensely subtle operation, relying significantly upon the use of psychology. One of his greatest achievements was to establish the Atlantiksender (short-wave) coupled with the immensely powerful Soldatensender Calais (medium-wave), both stations offering its listeners stories which were brilliant combinations of truth and falsehood. It was the cumulative effect of these misleading broadcasts which was significant.

Ellic Howe’s contribution to the work of the PWE was the production of subversive literature - authentic-looking posters and leaflets in German conveying false information designed to confuse and disturb, such as the poster depicting an SS officer declaring that he was ‘wanted’ by the authorities. It is impossible to gauge the extent of damage caused by either the broadcasts or the literature, but Richard Crossman wrote in 1973: ‘Subversive operations and black propaganda were the only aspects of war at which we achieved real pre-eminence.' Ellic Howe’s account of these ‘black’ activities makes fascinating reading and is superbly illustrated by ‘black’ material from the Imperial War Museum.

Die Waffe die auf die Seele Zielt
Die Waffe die auf die Seele Zielt: Psychologische Kriegführung 1939-1945; Buchbender, Ortwin / Schuh, Horst; (Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart, 1988) ISBN 387943915X
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band  9
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 9: Flugblätter aus der UdSSR September - Dezember 1941; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1988) ISBN 3-921295-15-7
Behind Enemy Lines
Behind Enemy Lines: WWII Allied/Axis Propaganda; Boehm, Edward; (Wellfleet Press, 1989) ISBN 1-55521-379-0

The term psychological warfare had its origins during World War II. It had many different names depending on the time and place. It had its growing pains as any other new organization is expected to have. PWB dealt mainly with combat propaganda.

Propaganda is no new media of warfare. Many centuries before Christ, psychological warfare was employed, and has been used ever since. There are many objectives that may be sought through the use of psychological warfare. The first and foremost is to demoralize the enemy. In this book one will readily see that the Germans were well aware of this objective and took full advantage of the situation. They certainly were expert in this field. I believe the Germans had the Allies out-bested in every way when it came to propaganda, but then they were at it many years before World War II got under way.

Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 11
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 11: Flugblätter aus England, aus den USA Nachrichten für die Truppe 1944; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1989) ISBN 3-921295-18-1
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 12
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 12: Flugblätter aus England, aus den USA Nachrichten für die Truppe 1945; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1989) ISBN 3-921295-19-X
Radio Warfare
Radio Warfare: OSS and CIA Subversive Propaganda; Soley, Lawrence, C; (Praeger Publishers, 1989) ISBN 0-275-93051-3
Munitions of the Mind
Munitions of the Mind: War propaganda from the ancient world to the nuclear age; Taylor, Philip M.; (Patrick Stephens Ltd, 1990) ISBN 1-85260-052-7

War is essentially an organized communication of violence. Propaganda is essentially an organized process of persuasion. Whereas the former attacks the body, the latter assaults the mind in an attempt to affect the way in which participants perform on the field of battle, and to bolster the morale of one side while undermining the will to fight of the other.

Propaganda is as old as human history and has been part of the fabric of conflict since man first picked up a club in anger. Its inextricable association with war has given it a sinister reputation, but, as this book attempts to show, propaganda in itself is a neutral concept: it is the intention behind its deliberate use that determines its moral character.

In Munitions of the Mind, Philip Taylor provides a stimulating history, for both general reader and military enthusiast. He traces the beginnings of the process in the ‘stelae’ of ancient Mesopotamia — stone monuments depicting the irresistible power of warlike rulers. He then goes on to examine the development of propaganda techniques in ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, and the Middle Ages before analysing how the art of persuasion functioned in such conflicts as the Thirty Years War and the English Civil War.

The invention of printing in the middle of the fifteenth century was a watershed in the history of propaganda, printed material playing a central role in maintaining the power of the Tudors and successive regimes both in England and on the continent. With the American and French revolutions, propaganda, in a variety of forms, began to come of age. But it was in the twentieth century, with the advent of ‘Total War’ and the development of mass communication techniques, that propaganda assumed a new and crucial importance.

In the nuclear age propaganda has become an essential means by which superpowers fight each other verbally rather than physically. Dr Taylor argues that persuasion is a necessary means for forging consensus in a liberal democracy and that propaganda for peace is vital in the nuclear age — despite glasnost. ‘The challenge,' he concludes, ‘is to ensure that no single propaganda source gains a monopoly over the information and images that shape our thoughts. If this happens, the war propagandists will be back in business again.’

Psychological Operations and Political Warfare in Long-term Strategic Planning
Psychological Operations and Political Warfare in Long-term Strategic Planning; Radvanyi, Janos (ed.); (Praeger, 1990)
Secret Squadrons Of The Eighth
Secret Squadrons Of The Eighth; Carty, Pat; (Speciality Press, 1990)

What will become of this little section of England that has been our life for the last year or two This book contains stories of the the world war and the secrets of the people who lived in it. This book provides a graphic account of the background, equipment, and the tactics of famous military operations. Many of these operations would see the first use of pioneering new weaponry, equipment or military tactics against an unsuspecting enemy. These fascinating stories will be of interest to military historians, wargamers and historians alike. This fantastic new book analyses the German raid on the Belgian fort of Eben-Emael and its consequences, separating myth from truth. When the Germans launched their offensive against Belgium, Holland and France in May 1940 one major obstacle stood in the way.

Leaflets of the Persian Gulf War
Leaflets of the Persian Gulf War; 4th PSYOP Group (Airborne), Fort Bragg; (U.S. Army, 1991)
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 1. Weltkrieg, Band  2
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 1. Weltkrieg, Band 2: Flugblätter aus Frankreich 1914 - 1918; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1992) ISBN 3-921295-24-6
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band  4
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 4: Flugblätter aus England G-1942; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1992) ISBN 3-921295-25-4
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 13
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 13: Flugblätter aus der UdSSR Front-Illustrierte 1941-1445; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1992) ISBN 3-921295-26-2
PSYWAR: Psychological Warfare in Korea 1950-1953; Pease, Stephen E.; (Stackpole Books, 1992) ISBN 0 8117 2592 8
With Weapons and Wits
With Weapons and Wits: Propaganda and Psychological Warfare in World War II; Rendell, Kenneth W; (Museum of Our National Heritage, 1992)
FM 33-1 [1993] Psychological Operations - February 1993
FM 33-1 [1993] Psychological Operations - February 1993; HQ Department of the Army; (US Government, 1993)
Psychological Operations in Support of Operation Restore Hope
Psychological Operations in Support of Operation Restore Hope: 9 December 92 - 4 May 93; 4th PSYOP Group, Fort Bragg; (U.S. Army, 1993)
Science of Coercion
Science of Coercion: Communication Research & Psychological Warfare 1945-1960; Simpson, Christopher; (Oxford University Press, 1994) ISBN 0-19-507193-X

A provocative and eye-opening study of the essential role the US military and the Central Intelligence Agency played in the advancement of communication studies during the Cold War era, now with a new introduction by Robert W. McChesney and a new preface by the author

Since the mid-twentieth century, the great advances in our knowledge about the most effective methods of mass communication and persuasion have been visible in a wide range of professional fields, including journalism, marketing, public relations, interrogation, and public opinion studies. However, the birth of the modern science of mass communication had surprising and somewhat troubling midwives: the military and covert intelligence arms of the US government.

Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 14
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 14: Flugblätter aus der UdSSR Gesamtverzeichnis 1941-1945; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1995) ISBN 3-921295-27-0
From Pillar To Post
From Pillar To Post; Harris, Norman F; (Air Force Publishing Service, 1995) ISBN 1872308651
PSYOP Support to Operation Uphold Democracy
PSYOP Support to Operation Uphold Democracy: A Psychological Victory; 4th PSYOP Group, Fort Bragg; (U.S. Army, 1995)
Selling War
Selling War: The British Propaganda Campaign Against American Neutrality in World War II; Cull, Nicholas John; (Oxford University Press, 1995) ISBN 0-19-508566-3

“British propaganda brought America to the brink of war, and left it to the Japanese and Hitler to finish the job.” So concludes Nicholas Cull in this absorbing study of how the United States was transformed from isolation to belligerence in the years before the attack on Pearl Harbor.

From the moment it realized that all was lost without American aid, the British Government employed a host of persuasive tactics to draw the U.S. to its rescue. With the help of talents as varied as those of matinee idol Leslie Howard, Oxford philosopher Isaiah Berlin and society photographer Cecil Beaton, no section of America remained untouched and no method—from Secret Service intrigue to the publication of horrifying pictures of Nazi atrocities—remained untried. The British sought and won the support of key journalists and broadcasters, including Edward R. Murrow, Dorothy Thompson, and Walter Winchell; Hollywood film makers also played a willing part. Cull details these and other propaganda activities, covering the entire range of the British effort.

A fascinating story of how a foreign country promoted America’s involvement in its greatest war, Selling War will appeal to all those interested in the modem cultural and political history of Britain and the United States.

The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom
The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Vol. 3: The War of Words; Briggs, Asa; (OUP Oxford, 1995) ISBN 978-0192129567

This is the third part of a five-volume history of broadcasting in the UK, giving an authoritative account of the rise of broadcasting in this country.

This volume covering the period from 1939 to 1945, is concerned not only with the impact of the Second World War on the structure, organization, and programmes of the BBC, itself a fascinating subject; it also deals directly with the role of the BBC outside as well as inside Britain within the context of the general political and military history of the war; an exciting, complicated, sometimes controversial role, strangely neglected by historians.

No cover art available
Winning Heart and Minds: British Governments, the Media and Colonial Counter-insurgency 1944-1960; Carruthers, Susan L; (Leicester University Press, 1995) ISBN 0-7185-0027-X
No cover art available
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 15: Nationalkomitee Freies Deutschland 1943-1945; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 1996) ISBN 3-921295-28-9
Joint Pub 3-53, Doctrince for Joint Psychological Operations
Joint Pub 3-53, Doctrince for Joint Psychological Operations: 10 July 1996; Joint Chiefs of Staff; (US Military, 1996)
No cover art available
Global Communications, International Affairs and the Media Since 1945
Global Communications, International Affairs and the Media Since 1945; Taylor, Philip M.; (Routledge, 1997) ISBN 0415116791

In Global Communications, International Affairs and the Media since 1945 , Philip M. Taylor traces the increased involvement of the media in issues of peace and especially war from the nineteenth century to the present day. He analyzes the nature, role and impact of communications within the international arena since 1945 and how communications interacts with foreign policy in practice rather than in theory. Using studies which include the Gul War and Vietnam, Taylor details the contemporary problems reporting while at the same time providing a comprehensive historical context.

Seeds of Victory
Seeds of Victory: Psychological Warfare and Propaganda; Johnson, Richard D.; (Schiffer Publishing Ltd, 1997) ISBN 0-7643-0349-X
Britain's Secret Propaganda War 1948-1977
Britain's Secret Propaganda War 1948-1977; Lashmar, Paul and Oliver, James; (Sutton Publishing, 1998) ISBN 0750916680

For nearly thirty years during the Cold War, the Foreign Office’s Information Research Department (IRD) waged a vigorous covert propaganda campaign against Communism across the world using journalists, politicians, academics and trade unionists. Famous names like George Orwell, Denis Healey, Stephen Spender, Bertrand Russell and Guy Burgess helped or backed the work of IRD.

Set up under the Labour Government in 1948 and clandestinely financed from the Secret Intelligence Service budget, IRD was a large organization with close links to MI6 — with which it shared many personnel. Parliament, had it known of the true purpose of IRD’s existence, may well have rejected an anti-Communist propaganda offensive, but it was simply not informed.

Using a vast array of techniques to influence world and domestic opinion, IRD’s activities mirrored and complemented similar CIA covert propaganda operations. Its influence extended across the world and took in newspapers, magazines, news agencies, book publishing, academia and radio stations. IRD also influenced the BBC’s and Reuters’ output of news stories.Here for the first time are the ‘spin doctors’, ‘rebuttal units’ and ‘lobbyists’ that forged new ways of manipulating the media long before New Labour came to power.

British Security Coordination
British Security Coordination: The Secret History of British Intelligence in the Americas, 1940-45; West, Nigel (intro); (St Ermin's Press, 1998) ISBN 0316644641

In 1940 Winston Churchill authorised the creation of a highly secret organisation in New York to supervise the activities of MI5, Special Operations Executive, the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) and the Political Warfare Executive in the western hemisphere. Headed by the Canadian industrialist Sir William Stephenson, its first tasks were to promote British interests in the United States, counter Nazi propaganda and protect the Atlantic convoys from enemy sabotage.

Despite clashing with J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI, British Security Coordination (BSC) soon went on to develop a vast intelligence network which stretched from Chile to Bermuda, from the Caribbean to Vancouver. Security personnel arrested Axis spies; mail censors intercepted the enemy’s clandestine communications; undercover agents fomented anti-Nazi activity across Latin America; and schemes were developed to harass Vichy, Italian and Japanese diplomats.

Revealed here for the first time are the ingenious operations undertaken by BSC, among them attempts to undermine US isolationism and influence American public opinion by making secret payments to popular radio commentators. Other activities included planting false stories in newspapers; forging incriminating documents; recruiting informants in the German-American Bund; and infiltrating spies into Axis embassies. The previously classified history of BSC has remained hidden in Whitehall vaults since the end of the war, and amounts to an astonishing catalogue of dirty tricks, daring escapades and high drama.

War and the Media
War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War; Taylor, Philip M.; (Manchester University Press, 1998) ISBN 0719055504

The Gulf War was the highest profile media war in history. Never before had so many journalists attempted to cover a war from both sides of the conflict. This book traces the role of the media in the Gulf War and examines the attempts by both the coalition and Iraq to influence public opinion through propaganda and persuasion. Philip Taylor asks how much the public were being told and how much was held back. Analysing the key news stories of the conflict, he looks at the efforts of the American-led coalition to persuade television audiences and newspaper readers to take a ‘right-view’ of what was happening and of the Iraqi government’s propaganda campaigns concerning collateral damage and the Mother of all Battles. This revised edition features a new introduction and bibliography which bring the study fully up-to-date.

You Can't Fight Tanks With Bayonets
You Can't Fight Tanks With Bayonets: Psychological Warfare against the Japanese Army in the Southwest Pacific; Gilmore, Allison B.; (University of Nebraska, 1998) ISBN 0-8032-2167-3
British Propaganda in the Twentieth Century
British Propaganda in the Twentieth Century: Selling Democracy; Taylor, Philip M.; (Edinburgh University Press, 1999) ISBN 0748610391

This exciting new book examines the evolution of British propaganda practice during the course of the twentieth century. Written by an internationally-renowned expert in the area, British Propaganda in the Twentieth Century covers the period from the First World War to the present day, including discussions of recent developments in information warfare. It includes analysis of film, radio, television and the press, and places the British experience within the wider international context.

Drawing together elements of the author’s previously published work, the book demonstrates how Britain has established a model for democratic propaganda worldwide.

This is the first volume in the new International Communications series, edited by Philip M. Taylor.

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Psychological Operations Support to Operation Allied Force; 4th PSYOP Group (Airborne), Fort Bragg; (U.S. Army, 1999)
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Radio London and Resistance in Occupied Europe: British Political Warfare 1939-1943; Stenton, Michael; (Oxford University Press, 2000) ISBN 9780198208433

This book examines British attempts to wage political warfare in the countries occupied by Germany in World War II. It describes the construction of political warfare machinery in London, showing how it was hampered by two difficulties: Whitehall politics and deep doubts about the war's purpose. The book then examines how political warfare operated as a semi-detached adjunct of diplomacy and how it engaged with the development of armed or otherwise active resistance in France, Denmark, Poland, and Yugoslavia. The book is also a study of British political imagination in a period when Britain perceived itself as a largely independent world power. The experience of near-defeat, however, left the decision-makers with dilemmas about rhetoric and ideology as well as strategy.

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Story of a Psy-Warrior, The: Tan Sri Dr. C.C. Too; Lim, Cheng Leng; (Batu Caves, 2000) ISBN 9834029705
Emergency Propaganda
Emergency Propaganda: The Winning of Malayan Hearts and Minds 1948-1958; Ramakrishna, Kumar; (Curzon Press, 2002) ISBN 0-7007-1510-X

Sheds new light on the hitherto neglected years of the Emergency (1955-58) demonstrating how it was British propaganda which decisively ended the shooting war in December 1958. The study argues for a concept of 'propaganda' that embraces not merely 'words' in the form of film, radio and leaflets but also 'deeds'.

Renegades: Hitler's Englishmen; Weale, Adrian; (Pimlico, 2002) ISBN 0712667644

At the end of the Second World War, nearly 200 British citizens were uder investigation for assisting Nazi Germany. Some have remained notorious, such as William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) and John Amery who went to the gallows for High Treason, but as this meticulously researched study shows, men like Joyce and Amery are only the visible part of a much larger and more intriguing story below the surface.

Secret History of PWE, The
Secret History of PWE, The: The Political Warfare Executive, 1939-1945; Garnett, David; (St. Ermin's Press, 2002) ISBN 1 903608 08 2

Of all Britain’s secret intelligence organisations, the least known is the Political Warfare Executive, developed to conduct psychological warfare against the Nazis. Now, for the first time, PWE’s history has been declassified by the Cabinet Office and released fifty years after it had been completed and consigned to Whitehall’s secret archives.

David Garnett’s extraordinary story tells of how such resourceful intellects as Richard Crossman, Sefton Delmer, Leonard Ingrams and Valentine Williams waged a covert campaign against the enemy, using such unorthodox and ingenious methods as black propaganda and ‘false flag’ radio broadcasts. It also reveals the internal conflicts with the BBC, Special Operations Executive and the Secret Intelligence Service. Once completed, PWE’s history was considered too explosive to release to the public, and even the circulation within Whitehall was strictly limited because of the document’s sensitivity.

At best a handbook of how to undermine an adversary, and at worst a tale of breathtaking incompetence and political infighting, The Secret History of PWE adds a missing dimension to recent disclosures of Britain’s covert wartime operations.

Secret History of SOE, The
Secret History of SOE, The: Special Operations Executive 1940-1945; Mackenzie, William; (St. Ermin's Press, 2002) ISBN 1 903608 11 2

At the end of World War II, the Cabinet Office commissioned an eminent academic, Professor William Mackenzie, to undertake a comprehensive secret history of Special Operations Executive. Given access to both personnel and the surviving wartime files, Mackenzie's report was a reference document to be used by intelligence agencies in a future conflict, its audience the very elite of Whitehall insiders. Now, this highly classified account has been made available. Never before have SOE's operations across the world been described in such detail and with total authority. Mackenzie's document explores numerous controversies and reveals dozens of previously undisclosed episodes from Britain's secret war against the Axis. Who were the agents parachuted in Germany? What became of schemes designed to protect Gibraltar from a Spanish invasion? Why did so many circuits suffer enemy penetration? When did SOE decide to collaborate with the NKVD and infiltrate Soviet spies into Eastern Europe? These and other wartime mysteries are packed into one of the most controversial documents of our time.

Britain, America and Anti-Communist Propaganda 1945-53
Britain, America and Anti-Communist Propaganda 1945-53: The Information Research Department; Defty, Andrew; (Routledge, 2004) ISBN 0-714-654443-4

In the Cold War battle for hearts and minds Britain was the first country to formulate a coordinated global response to communist propaganda. In January 1948, the British government launched a new propaganda policy designed to 'oppose the inroads of communism' by taking the offensive against it.' A small section in the Foreign Office, the innocuously titled Information Research Department (IRD), was established to collate information on communist policy, tactics and propaganda, and coordinate the discreet dissemination of counter-propaganda to opinion formers at home and abroad.

Bletchley Park's Secret Sisters
Bletchley Park's Secret Sisters: Psychological Warfare in World War II; Taylor, John A; (The Book Castle, 2005) ISBN 190374735X

Bletchley Park will be forever associated with the secret intelligence activities of World War Two. Yet in addition to the incredible achievements of the code breakers, only a few miles away several other secret organisations were also achieving clandestine success, with operations that were conducted from centres scattered around the local area. This region had been chosen by the Government because it was remote from the London Blitz yet still maintained good road and rail communications with the Capital - but what did these secret organisations do?

In a highly subversive campaign, propaganda played an early and effective role, selecting recruits from amongst the refugees fleeing Nazi oppression. Gathered in large, local houses, there they would write and rehearse propaganda scripts for radio broadcasts to enemy territory. At a secret studio, these broadcasts were then recorded onto discs and taken by the Secret Service to radio transmitting stations hidden in the local countryside.

Under the control of the Communications Section of the Secret Intelligence Service, another radio station transmitted decoded information from Bletchley Park to Allied military commanders overseas. Further radio stations maintained contact with secret agents, sent on missions deep inside Occupied Europe. In hidden workshops, advanced radio equipment for their use was designed and manufactured, and in various country houses specialised training schools were set up.

Later in the war, not far from Woburn Abbey an ultra modern recording and broadcast studio was built which, when linked to the most powerful radio transmitter in Europe, began sophisticated operations that would completely deceive the Germans. In just one example, actual German radio stations were taken over and, by mimicking the original announcers, all manner of false instructions could then be put out to confuse the German listeners.

This book tells the little known story of all these other secret activities, the fascinating story of Bletchley Park's 'Secret Sisters'.

Paper War
Paper War: Nazi propaganda in one battle, on a single day Cassino, Italy, May 11, 1944; Bytwerk, Randall L.; (Mark Batty, 2005) ISBN 0-9762245-0-X
SOE's Ultimate Deception Operation Periwig
SOE's Ultimate Deception Operation Periwig; Boyce, Fredric; (Sutton Publishing, 2005) ISBN 0-7509-4027-1

In the closing months of the Second World War in Europe, General Dwight D. Eisenhower exhorted the Western Allied forces to redouble their efforts to break the German will to resist. In considering this appeal, General Gubbins, whose Special Operations Executive (SOE) had accomplished much in the liberation of occupied territory, was faced with a fundamental difficulty in the case of Germany. Although some opposition to Nazism existed, it was neither organised nor pro-Allied. He could not see how he could foment administrative breakdown within the Reich to assist the Allied forces in overrunning Germany.

Then someone had the idea of creating an entirely fictional German resistance movement and ‘selling’ it to the Nazi security authorities. Thus Operation Periwig - SOE’s enterprising plan to destabilise the Third Reich from within -was born. In cooperation with the Political Warfare Executive (PWE), SOE set about planning this highly imaginative deception operation in the face of opposition from some influential quarters. From January until April 1945 the Allies rained propaganda leaflets on the retreating German troops and displaced civilians fleeing the oncoming Allied ground forces; they broadcast messages to the ‘resistance’; they planted the most scandalous lies about eminent Nazis; and at the end they even dropped four agents on fictitious missions.

In this, the first book dedicated solely to Periwig, Fredric Boyce sheds new light on the vested interests and infighting between Britain’s secret organisations in the final stages of the Second World War. SOE’s imaginative response to Ike’s appeal and the sheer audacity of the operation itself demand to be told to a wider audience.

The Failure of American and British Propaganda in the Arab Middle East, 1945â1957
The Failure of American and British Propaganda in the Arab Middle East, 1945–1957: Unconquerable Minds; Vaughan, James R; (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2005) ISBN 9781403947147

Using recently declassified sources, this book provides the first detailed analysis of British and American propaganda targeting the countries of the Middle East during the years of increasing international tension and regional instability immediately following the end of the Second World War. Considering British and American propaganda within the framework of the Cold War crusade against Communism and the Soviet Union, and the developing confrontations between Arab nationalism and the West, the book investigates the central questions of Anglo-American partnership and rivalry in the period when primary responsibility for 'policing' the Middle East passed from one to the other.

Villages of the Moon
Villages of the Moon: Psychological Operations in Southern Afghanistan; Roberts, M.E.; (PublishAmerica, 2005) ISBN 1-4137-5771-5
British Propaganda and News Media in the Cold War
British Propaganda and News Media in the Cold War; Jenks, John; (Edinburgh University Press, 2006) ISBN 9780748623143

This is a study of the British state's generation, suppression and manipulation of news to further foreign policy goals during the early Cold War. Bribing editors, blackballing "unreliable" journalists, creating instant media experts through provision of carefully edited "inside information", and exploiting the global media system to plant propaganda--disguised as news--around the world: these were all methods used by the British to try to convince the international public of Soviet deceit and criminality and thus gain support for anti-Soviet policies at home and abroad.

Britain's shaky international position heightened the importance of propaganda. The Soviets and Americans were investing heavily in propaganda to win the "hearts and minds" of the world and substitute for increasingly unthinkable nuclear war. The British exploited and enhanced their media power and propaganda expertise to keep up with the superpowers and preserve their own global influence at a time when British economic, political and military power was sharply declining. This activity directly influenced domestic media relations, as officials used British media to launder foreign-bound propaganda and to create the desired images of British "public opinion" for foreign audiences.

Losing Arab Hearts and Minds
Losing Arab Hearts and Minds: The Coalition, Al Jazeera and Muslim Public Opinion; Tatham, Steve; (Hurst & Co, 2006) ISBN 1850658110

From November 2002 to May 2003, Steve Tatham worked alongside American military planners in the Gulf, coordinating the huge media campaign that foreshadowed and accompanied the eventual invasion of Iraq. From first hand experience he witnessed how, in advance of the outbreak of hostilities, the US planned to win over sceptical Arab hearts and minds. Yet as the campaign unfolded, Tatham, the Royal Navy's public spokesman in Iraq, saw how differently the British and Americans regarded the media and how badly journalists from the Arab world, in particular from Al-Jazeera satellite television, were treated in comparison to those from coalition nations. His book is highly critical of how the United States handled its information war. Notwithstanding the best efforts of well meaning senior US officials, the mounting death toll, both military and civilian, saw the Americans all but ignore the Arab media , focusing instead on a largely acquiescent domestic press, one still obsessed with Al Qaeda's 9/11 attacks on the homeland and only too happy to fly the Stars and Stripes. Images of dead and captured coalition servicemen led to Arab channels being accused of bias against western forces, and such was the demonisation of some channels that many observers began to wonder if President Bush's declaration that 'you are either with us or against us' applied not just to nation states but also to the world's media.

Psychological Warfare and India
Psychological Warfare and India; Bhatt, Dr. Arunkumar; (Lancer Publishers & Distributors, 2006) ISBN 81 7062 133X
Besegra Utan Strid
Besegra Utan Strid: Den psykologiska krieg ringens historia; Tubin, Eino; (Santérus Förlag, 2007) ISBN 9789189449930
British Propaganda to France, 1940-1944
British Propaganda to France, 1940-1944: Machinery, Method and Message; Brooks, Tim; (Edinburgh University Press, 2007) ISBN 978 0 7486 2519

This book examines the important issue of British propaganda to France during the Second World War and aims to show the value of the propaganda campaign to the British war effort.

British Propaganda to France is a unique contribution to the field, not only in its examination of one of the least well-studied areas of British activity during the Second World War but also in the breadth of its approach. It surveys the organisation, operation and nature of the British propaganda effort towards the French people, including both white propaganda (BBC broadcasts and leaflets dropped by the RAF) and black propaganda (secret broad¬casting stations, documents purporting to come from the Germans in France or distributed in France using clandestine methods, and rumours). Finally it examines the contemporary British understanding of the French and German reception of and reaction to this propaganda material, to show whether the campaign was an effective and well-directed use of resources.

Almost all examinations of British foreign propaganda during the Second World War have focused on propaganda directed towards Germany. British propaganda to France, which in terms of quantity of output was actually the most important area of British propaganda, has never been examined in depth until now. This book adds a further chapter to our knowledge of propaganda in the Second World War, especially in the conduct of psychological warfare. It also touches on better-known areas such as RAF Bomber Command and its Operational Training Units, which handled aerial dissemi¬nation of British white propaganda leaflets over France, and the Special Operations Executive in France, which worked closely with the Political Warfare Executive in delivering black propaganda.

Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 16
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 16: Leaflets from Germany for American Soldiers in Western Europe 1944; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 2007) ISBN 9783921295342
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 17
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 17: Leaflets from Germany for American Soldiers in Western Europe 1945; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 2007) ISBN 9783921295342
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 18
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 18: Leaflets from the U.S. Armies for German Soldiers in Western Europe, 1944-1945; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 2007) ISBN 9783921295366
Illness Saves
Illness Saves: The British WWII Black Propaganda Malingering Campaign; Dr. Do-Good / Richards, Lee (Ed); (PsyWar.Org, 2007) ISBN 0-9542936-1-4

For the first time a complete English translation of Delmer's famous malingering booklet is now available with an additional foreword by Lee Richards explaining the background to the PWE/SOE desertion and malingering black propaganda campaign against Nazi Germany.

Propaganda and Information Warfare in the Twenty-First Century
Propaganda and Information Warfare in the Twenty-First Century: Altered images and deception operations; Macdonald, Scot; (Routledge, 2007) ISBN 0-415-77145-5

This is the first book to analyze how the technology to alter images and rapidly distribute them can be used for propaganda and to support deception operations.

In the past, propagandists and those seeking to conduct deception operations used crude methods to alter images of real people, events and objects, which could usually be detected relatively easily. Today, however, computers allow propagandists to create any imaginable image, still or moving, with appropriate accompanying audio. Furthermore, it is becoming extremely difficult to detect that an image has been manipulated, and the Internet, television and global media make it possible to disseminate altered images around the world almost instantaneously. Given that the United States is the sole superpower, few, if any, adversaries will attempt to fight the US military conventionally on the battlefield. Therefore, adversaries will use propaganda and deception, especially altered images, in an attempt to level the battlefield or to win a war against the United States without even having to fight militarily.

Propaganda and Information Warfare in the 21st Century will be of great interest to students of information war, propaganda, public diplomacy and security studies in general.

Spy Capital of Britain
Spy Capital of Britain: Bedfordshire's Secret War 1939-1945; Bunker, Stephen; (Bedford Chronicles Press, 2007) ISBN 0906020034

When Winston Churchill instructed, Hugh Dalton, the Minister of Economic Warfare to 'set Europe ablaze' could anyone have known that he would be creating the 'spy capital of Britain' in rural Bedfordshire?

Following the fall of France in June 1940 the British Government began to consider how it could help the people of Europe resist Nazis oppression. Perhaps by accident or because of its central location amidst the airfields of East Anglia and its easy access to London, Bedfordshire became the focal point for secret counter measures against the Nazis and within a 30-mile radius of Bedford there developed an intriguing 'triangle' of wartime activity including development of irregular weapons, code breaking, radio surveillance and the training and delivery of secret agents. With so many sites within the county involved in covert operations, black propaganda, espionage and subterfuge, maybe it's not so hard to understand why one modern-day senior military commander described Bedfordshire as the 'spy capital of Britain'.

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The Projection of Britain: British Overseas Publicity and Propaganda 1919-1939; Taylor, Philip M.; (Cambridge University Press, 2007) ISBN 978-0521046411
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 19
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 19: Antisemitische Flugblätter aus Deutschland 1939-1945; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 2008) ISBN 9783921295373
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 20
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 20: Erotische Fluggbla¨tter in Europe im 20. Jahrhundert; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 2008) ISBN 9783921295380
Secret Wireless War, The
Secret Wireless War, The: The Story of MI6 Communications 1939-1945; Pidgeon, Geoffrey; (Arundel Books, 2008)

Possibly the most important UK wireless traffic in World War II was handled by a unit formed in 1938 by Brigadier Richard Gambier-Parry head of MI6 Section VIII - the communications division of SIS.

This book tells of its formation and includes diary entries by one of the ‘founding fathers’ recording the secret meetings that took place, and the assembly of its talented staff.

It reports the earlier days of the original SIS wireless ‘Station X’ based in Barnes in south west London, and the building of its second station in a bungalow in Surrey with the strange name of ‘Funny Neuk’ - which turned out to be owned by Admiral Sir Hugh Sinclair - ‘C’ - Chief of Secret Intelligence Services.

The unit’s wireless station at Bletchley Park is described and its replacement by the stations at nearby Whaddon Hall which then became the wartime headquarters of Section VIII.

It documents the work of our agents in embassies abroad, and of those in German occupied territories; the story of Churchill’s personal wireless operator, and there is the description by a German soldier of the Afrika Corps of his operating an Enigma machine at Rommel’s headquarters in the desert.

The curious story of ‘Black Propaganda’ is told and the units handling of the military ULTRA traffic out to commanders in the field.

Personal tales by those who were part of this most secret of units abound in the book and it is an important record of people and events that - it is no exaggeration to say - helped to win the war.

Whilst essential, the technical side of the tale has not been allowed to dominate the book which is profusely illustrated.

Cold War Radio
Cold War Radio: The Dangerous History of American Broadcasting in Europe, 1950-1989; Cummings, Richard H; (McFarland & Co, 2009) ISBN 0786441380

During the Cold War, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty broadcast uncensored news and commentary to people living in communist nations. As critical elements of the CIA's early covert activities against communist regimes in Eastern Europe, the Munich-based stations drew a large audience despite efforts to jam the broadcasts and ban citizens from listening to them. This history of the stations in the Cold War era reveals the perils their staff faced from the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Romania and other communist states. It recounts in detail the murder of writer Georgi Markov, the 1981 bombing of the stations by "Carlos the Jackal," infiltration by KGB agent Oleg Tumanov and other events. Appendices include security reports, letters between Carlos the Jackal and German terrorist Johannes Weinrich and other documents, many of which have never been published.

Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 21
Flugblatt - Propaganda im 2. Weltkrieg, Band 21: Flugbla¨tter aus Deutschland fu¨r Amerikanische und Britische Soldaten in Italien, 1944/1945; Kirchner, Klaus; (Verlag D+C, 2009) ISBN 9783921295403
Black Art, The
Black Art, The: British Clandestine Psychological Warfare Against the Third Reich; Richards, Lee; (, 2010) ISBN 0-9542936-2-2

As well as the open propaganda of the British Government produced during the Second World War, like the foreign language radio broadcasts of the BBC and the aerial propaganda leaflets dropped by the RAF over Occupied Europe, a secret underground propaganda battle was also fought. 'The Black Art' documents this history of Britain's clandestine psychological warfare conducted against the Nazi's Third Reich. This black propaganda was the work of several secret intelligence organisations including the Political Warfare Executive and Special Operations Executive. Using previously undiscovered primary source material 'The Black Art' charts the progress of and catalogues the range of propaganda leaflets covertly distributed across Occupied Europe and beyond to subvert the morale of German soldiers and civilians. The propaganda included such ruses as malingering instructions to fake the symptoms of illness, tips for desertion to neutral countries, parody postage stamps, advice on sabotaging a U-boat, counterfeit ration coupons, identity documents and newspapers plus numerous other falsely attributed leaflets and stickers. Over 350 illustrations are included.

Listening to Britain
Listening to Britain: Home Intelligence Reports on Britain's Finest Hour, May - September 1940; Addison, Paul; Crang, Jeremy A; (Bodley Head, 2010) ISBN 978-1847921420

* From May to September 1940, during a period that saw some of the most dramatic events of the war - the evacuation from Dunkirk, the Battle of Britain and the opening stages of the Blitz - the Ministry of Information compiled daily reports on the morale of the nation for circulation within Whitehall.

* These reports make fascinating reading: they tell the story of people's hopes and fears - from rumours about German spies disguised as nuns to concerns about anti-Semitism in the heavily-bombed East End of London - in all regions of the country during Britain's Finest Hour - at a time when the fate of the nation hung in the balance.

* Drawing on a wide range of informants, from the Mass-Observation social survey organisation to a network of contacts including chief constables, postal censors, doctors, parsons, publicans and trade unionists, the reports pieced together from these sources at great speed were by their very nature impressionistic, but provide us nevertheless with a unique record of contemporary feelings and perceptions at this historic juncture.

* They include a wealth of curious and idiosyncratic information about the lighter and the darker aspects of life in Britain at the time, illuminating the prevalence of rumours and gossip about the threat of invasion - as well as the importance of the introduction of tea rationing for daily life.

* Edited and introduced by two leading historians of the period and published here for the first time to coincide with the 70th anniversary of the dramatic events that came to be known as Britain's Finest Hour, the complete and unabridged sequence of the daily Home Intelligence reports provides unique insight into the continuously unfolding drama of Britain at war.

Whispers of War
Whispers of War: Underground Propaganda Rumour-Mongering in the Second World War; Richards, Lee; (, 2010) ISBN 0-9542936-4-9

A history of the use of rumours in the Second World War by the Brtish Government's Underground Propaganda Committee. Its job was to undermine the morale of German troops and civilians and to bolster the morale of the oppressed peoples of Occupied Europe. The book contains a collection of over 1,500 of the most noteworthy, provocative and amusing subversive rumours concocted.

Behavioural Conflict
Behavioural Conflict: Why Understanding People and Their Motives Will Prove Decisive in Future Conflict; Tatham, Steve and Mackay, Andrew; (Military Studies Press, 2011)

Whilst geopolitics, economics, religion and ethnicity all play crucial roles in starting and sustaining conflict this book advances the idea that it will be people’s behaviour, and the West’s ability to understand, interpret and influence that behaviour which will become the defining characteristic of resolving future armed disputes. This seminal study draws directly on the authors' operational experiences in Sierra Leone, Northern Ireland, Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq, Lebanon and Afghanistan. Includes a chapter by behavioural scientist Dr. Lee Rowland and an introduction by the BBC Radio 4 “More or Less” presenter Tim Harford. The foreword is by former ISAF commander General (ret.) Stanley McChrystal. This book argues that future conflicts will be best resolved by focusing attention on altering the behaviours of others, either in advance – and therefore deterring conflict – or as a coupled component in the process of combat and post-combat operations. They also argue that Western Armies have learnt too many lessons the hard way and been found wanting too easily. "Behavioural Conflct" argues for a fundamental rethink of the way that the West’s militaries are organised, educated, trained and deployed.

Hitler's Radio War
Hitler's Radio War; Tidy, Roger; (Robert Hale Ltd, 2011) ISBN 978-0709091493

This book tells the story of Nazi international broadcasting during and before the Second World War. At its peak German radio stations broadcast in fifty-four languages to a worldwide audience. For the first time in an international conflict, citizens of the warring nations could hear enemy propaganda in their own living rooms. Many of the voices that they heard belonged to a new type of criminal, the radio traitor. The nickname Lord Haw-Haw is still famous internationally, but there were numerous other radio renegades speaking on behalf of the Nazis. The Nazis' propaganda was sinister enough, but they also ran a series of secret stations that spoke to enemy audiences in the name of 'patriotic' dissidents who claimed to be broadcasting from clandestine transmitters in their own countries. Using archival material, "Hitler's Radio War" dissects the message that Germany's overt and covert propaganda stations broadcast to their audiences, as well as the lives and motivations of the broadcasters.

Propaganda: Power and Persuasion; Welch, David; (The British Library Publishing Division, 2013) ISBN 978-0712357005

Propaganda is all around us, used to promote a sense of common cause and belonging, change behaviour or influence ideas, as well as to mislead, deceive, even destroy. Perhaps the greatest and most sophisticated exponent of propaganda is the modern state. Using universal themes of conflict, public education, protest and leadership, this book, accompanying a major exhibition at the British Library, takes a close look at the range of propaganda used by different states—and their opponents. Over the last 100 years, increased literacy, a growth in media formats, new methodologies and competing messengers have required ever greater effort to persuade and influence citizens, and the book's primary focus is the 20th and 21st centuries, taking a worldwide view. But Propaganda: Power and Persuasion also puts its subject into historical context. Different strategies are highlighted—from appeals to hearts and minds, to rule by diktat and the cult of personality, and to sloganeering and news management. Posters,books, films, stamps, cartoons, music, newspapers, statistics, games, social media and the web all feature. The book concludes with a look at how the explosion in rolling news, mobile communications and social computing is influencing the way the state attempts to persuade and control its citizens.

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Rumores en guerra: Desinformación, internet y periodismo; Argemi, Marc; (Acontravent, 2013) ISBN 978-8415720102
British Propaganda and Wars of Empire
British Propaganda and Wars of Empire: Influencing Friend and Foe 1900-2010; Kennedy, Greg & Tuck, Christopher (Eds); (Ashgate, 2014) ISBN 9781409451730

'Influence' is a slippery concept, yet one of tremendous relevance for those wishing to understand global politics. From debates on the changing sources of power in the international system, through to analyses of its value as an alternative to the active use of force as a policy instrument, influence has become a recurrent theme in discussions of international relations and foreign policy. In order to provide a better understanding of the multifaceted and shifting nature of influence, this volume looks at how the British government employed various forms of pressure and persuasion to achieve its goals across the twentieth century. By focusing on Britain - a global actor with great power objectives but declining physical means - the collection provides a wide range of case studies to assess how influence was brought to bear on a wide array of non-western cultures and societies. It furthermore allows for an assessment of just how effective - or ineffective - British efforts were at influencing non-Western targets over a hundred years of operations. By shedding important light on the efficacy of British efforts to sustain and advance its interests in the twentieth century, the volume will be of interest not only to historians, but to anyone interested in contemporary problems surrounding the operation of influence as a foreign policy tool.

Propaganda and Counter-Terrorism
Propaganda and Counter-Terrorism: Strategies for Global Change; Briant, Emma; (Manchester University Press, 2014) ISBN 9780719091056

This book offers a unique account of British and United States government's attempts to adapt their propaganda strategies to global terrorist threats in a post-9/11 media environment. It discusses Anglo-American coordination and domestic struggles that brought in far-reaching changes to propaganda. These changes had implications for the structures of legitimacy yet occurred largely in isolation from public debate and raise questions regarding their governance. The author argues that independent and public reexamination of continuing strategy development is essential for government accountability and the formation of systems and policies that both respect citizens and build constructive foreign relations. The book's themes will appeal to a wide readership including scholars and professionals. It draws on illuminating interviews with high-profile British/US sources including journalists, PR professionals and key foreign policy, defence and intelligence personnel.

#TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia: @Characteristics_of_ Contemporary_Conflicts; Nissen, Thomas Elkjer; (Royal Danish Defence College, 2015) ISBN 9788771470987

In today’s conflict environment, transformed by information technology and of who can communicate and how, states, non-state actors, ad hoc activist networks and individuals create effect(s) in and through social network media. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia develops a framework to understand how social network media shapes global politics and contemporary conflicts by examining their role as a platform for conduction intelligence collection, targeting, cyber-operations, psychological warfare and command and control activities. Through these, the weaponization of social media shows both the possibilities and the limitations of social network media in contemporary conflicts and makes a contribution to theorizing and studying contemporary

The Pol Pot Conspiracy
The Pol Pot Conspiracy; ffrench-Blake, Neil ISBN B012BR3PJW

Neil ffrench-Blake was a psychological warrior, working as a consultant for the British and American Governments. As an expert in clandestine radio stations he played an integral part in the CIA's ten year operation to drive the Vietnamese out of Cambodia which is how he came to meet the West's ally at the time, Pol Pot of the Khmer Rouge. Neil draws on all his real-life experiences to tell a fictionalised story of suspicion, corruption and duplicity, which culminates in a daring plot to kill the leader of the Khmer Rouge.

Secret History of World War II, The
Secret History of World War II, The: Spies, Code Breakers, and Covert Operations; Kagan, Neil and Hyslop, Stephen G; (National Geographic, 2016) ISBN 1426217013

From spy missions to code breaking, this richly illustrated account of the covert operations of World War II takes readers behind the battle lines and deep into the undercover war effort that changed the course of history.

From the authors who created Eyewitness to World War II and numerous other best-selling illustrated reference books, this is the shocking story behind the covert activity that shaped the outcome of one of the world’s greatest conflicts—and the destiny of millions of people. National Geographic’s landmark book illuminates World War II as never before by taking you inside the secret lives of spies and spy masters, secret agents and secret armies, Enigma machines and code breakers, psychological warfare and black propaganda, secret weapons and secret battle strategies.

Seven heavily illustrated narrative chapters reveal the truth behind the lies and deception that shaped the “secret war;” eight essays showcase hundreds of rare photos and artifacts (many never before seen); more than 50 specially created sidebars tell the stories of spies and secret operations. Renowned historian and top-selling author Stephen Hyslop reveals this little-known side of the war in captivating detail, weaving in extraordinary eyewitness accounts and information only recently declassified. Rare photographs, artifacts, and illuminating graphics enrich this absorbing reference book.

Section D for Destruction
Section D for Destruction: Forerunner of SOE; Atkin, Malcolm; (Pen & Sword Military, 2018) ISBN 978-1473892606

When Neville Chamberlain made his famous Peace in Our Time statement in 1938, after the Munich Agreement with Hitler, he may, or may not, have been aware that the new Section D of the Secret Intelligence Service was already making plans to mount an all-out political and sabotage war against Nazi Germany. This was a new form of warfare, encompassing bribery, black propaganda and sabotage by agents described as having no morals or scruples. To the horror of many, it disregarded the conventions of neutrality and was prepared to hit the Nazi state wherever it could do most damage. Malcolm Atkin reveals how Section Ds struggle to build a European wide anti-Nazi resistance movement was met with widespread suspicion from government, to the extent of a systematic destruction of its reputation. It was, however, a key pioneer of irregular warfare that led to the formation of the famous Special Operations Executive (SOE). His study is the first in-depth account of it to be published since the release of previously secret documents to the National Archives.

Communist Leaflet Korea
Communist Leaflet Korea; (Psychological Warfare School, Fort Bragg, c1953)



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